- Menue item 'quit'
Quit the program. Input of the name of a file to save the current
drawing is requested. If the file name is empty, the drawing is not
- Menue item 'load'
Load a new picture. The name of a LaTeXdraw --inputfile is requested. If
the file name is empty or the file not existent, then the drawing
area is cleared.
Save the current picture. The name of a
LaTeXdraw --outputfile is requested. If the suggested name is ok, then
press return otherwise type name. If the file name is empty then no
output is generated. The drawing process can proceed after saving.
The output file can be loaded with 'load'.
After writing the LaTeXdraw --outputfile the name of a LaTeX--file is
requested. If the suggested name is ok, then
press return otherwise type name. If the file name is empty then no
output is generated. Otherwise output options are requested. If they
are the same as last saved for this picture, just press return. If
they differ, you are prompted for input:
The current output options are also saved in the LaTeXdraw --file for
- Do you want the output file with or without header and
- Maximum width and maximum height of picture in mm (for scaling)?
- Orientation of picture (rotated 90 degrees or not)?
Width and height are always defined for the picture before
rotation! Width and height are used for calculating the LaTeX
scaling factor '\unitlength'. Scaling is uniform in both
dimensions. The scaling is calculated to fill one of the two
dimensions with the picture. Linewidth and text fonts are never
scaled in order to achieve quality and consistency with the
- Menue item 'text'
First a point, the reference point, is defined. Then text input with
the keyboard is requested. This text is displayed in the prompt line
and can be modified there. If there was already a text object at
the selected point, the text of this object is displayed.
The font used is indicated in the menue field next to the menue item
'text', e.g. 17bpt means bold 17 points. An empty field means use
the font defined in the environment of the picture. You may change
the font by selecting the font from the special menue or by clicking
with the left or right mouse button in the font field next to 'text'
before finishing text input.
Text input is finished with return. Text can be no longer than about
Modifying text is similiar to emacs; use the characters DELETE,
BACKSPACE or ctrl-a, ctrl-d, ctrl-e and ctrl-k.
The fonts used are defined with macros in latexdraw.sty and can be
changed. The commands are defined as \F<fname>, where
fname is the font name displayed in the menue with the arabic
numbers transformed into roman numbers, e.g. font 12bpt is
associated with command \FXIIbpt.
The text is aligned relative to the reference point according to the
menue options 'l, r, t, b' and their combinations. The
reference point is indicated on the screen with a small triangle.
The alignment is read when text input is finished with return.
- 'l': Text aligned left
- 'r': Text aligned right
- both 'l' and 'r' not active: Text width centered
- 'b': Text bottom aligned
- 't': Text top aligned
- both 'b' and 't' not active: Text height centered
If the menue item '||' is activated, then the text is
rotated. The rotation is defined by selecting a reference line which
is parallel to the text. Since X-Windows is unable to display
rotated text, the text is always displayed horizontally. The
rotation is indicated by a special line associated with the text.
Since texts are character strings which are processed by the latex
programm it is allowed to use all macros (commands) defined by the
latex environment of the picture in your document.
- Menue item 'line'
Used to draw a line. Most lines are defined by their start and end
point only. Options are '||', '|-', ' _ ', ' . ',
'b>', 'e>' and '|]'.
'||' says that you want to draw a line which is parallel to
some other line and has the same lenght.
'|-' says that you want to draw a line which is normal to an
Solid lines are drawn when neither ' _ ' nor ' . ' are activated.
If only ' _ ' (' . ') is active the lines are dashed (dotted). If
both ' _ ' and ' . ' are activated then the lines are dashed
'b>' ('e>') means arrow at the beginning (end) of a line. The
beginning of a line is the first point you defined.
If there are no arrows selected but '|]' then solid lines are
extended half their linewidth on both ends.
The linewidth is defined by an integer between 0 and 20. The value
is displayed in the menue field '='. For printing the actual
linewidth is calculated in latexdraw.sty.
- Menue item 'circle'
Used to draw a circle or a filled circle or a circular arc or a
circular pieslice. A circle is defined by its center point and a
point on the circle. For an arc the beginning and the end of the arc
has to be defined (in mathematical sense).
If menue item 'C' is active then an arc or pieslice is drawn.
If menue item '* ' is active a filles circle or a pieslice is
The menue items ' _ ' and ' . ' define the linetype for circles or
The menue items 'b>' and 'e>' define possible arrows for arcs.
Defining the beginning or end of an arc has an important definition
which allows -- in contrast to other drawing programs -- easy and
precise positioning in many important cases. Assume (xc,yc) is the
center point and you have clicked on (x,y) to define the beginning
or end of the arc. Then the arc starts (ends) at the intersection of
the line defined by (xc,yc) to (x,y) and the circle.
An other way to define arcs is the direct keyboard input of the arc
as floating point number in degrees. This can be done when 'deg' is
To select a circle or arc click on the circle or arc.
- Menue item 'ellipse'
It is used to draw an ellipse or afilled ellipse or an elliptical
arc or a elliptical pieslice. For details see 'circle'. When you
have to define the endpoints of the x-axis (y-axis) then only the
x-value (y-value) of the selected point is used.
Ellipses are rotation sensitive. If menue item '||' is
active then the major axis of the ellipse is parallel to line to be
- Menue item 'rectangle'
It is used to draw a rectangle or a filled rectangle if '* ' is
active. To define the rectangle you have to define 2 diagonal corner
points. A rectangle which is not filled is represented as four
To select a rectangle click on the lines. To select a filled
rectangle click on a point within the rectangle.
- Menue item 'triangle'
It is used to draw a triangle, defined by three corner points. If
'* ' is active then the triangle is filled.
A triangle which is not filled is represented as three isolated
To select a triangle click on one of the lines. To select a filled triangle
click on a point within the triangle.
- Menue item 'quadrangle'
It is used to draw a quadrangle defined by four corner points in
sequence. If '* ' is active then the quadrangle is filled.
A quadrangle which is not filled is represented as four isolated
To select a quadrangle click on one of the lines. To select a filled
quadrangle click on a point within the quadrangle.
- Menue item 'Bezier'
It is used to draw a Bezier curve of third order, defined by 4
points. Linetype and arrows as described under 'line'. If '* ' is
active then the curve is filled.
The first point is the starting point of the Bezier curve. The
second point defines the tangent to the starting point. The fourth
point is the endpoint of the curve. The third point defines the
tangent to the end point.
A new Bezier curve which has the end point of the previous Bezier
curve as starting point and the same tangent there can be defined by
additional input of 2 points which define the tangent to the
endpoint and the endpoint.
- Menue item 'polygon'
It is used to draw a regular polygon. First point is the center
point, the second point is a point on the circle. The number of
vertices is requested as a keyboard input. This input is finished by
'RETURN'. If the menue field '* ' is active, then all vertices
are connected by a line with the center point.
- Menue item 'connect'
The center points of two drawing objects are connected. The center
points are dependeing of the type of the drawing object, e.g. for
filled trinangles the center of gravity is used as center point.
If menue field 'p' is active then the second point is not defined by
a drawing object but is the click-point itsself.
Is neither 'X' nor 'Y' active, then the two point are connected by a
direct line. If 'X' is active then the connecting line consists of a
horizontal line first and then a vertical line. If 'Y' is active
then the connecting line consists of a vertical line first and then
a horizontal line.
If the first (second) part of the line intersects the first (second)
drawing object then this part of the line is trimmed.
- Menue item 'p'
Used only with 'connect'. See this description.
- Menue item 'X'
Used only with 'connect'. See this description.
- Menue item 'Y'
Used only with 'connect'. See this description.
- Menue item 'mirror'
Objects are mirrored at a line. First this line is
selected. Afterwards objects can be selected which are
mirrored. Texts are only parially mirrored, the refernce point and
the orientation of the text are correctly transformed. But the
individual characters are not mirrored correctly.
- Menue item 'attr?'
You can request the display of some attributes not easily
recognizable by selecting objects. The attributes linewidth, colour,
and font of an object are displayed in the menue.
- Menue item 'rotate'
Objects are rotated by the number of degrees given in the field to
the right of 'rotate'. The direction of rotation is in the
mathematical sense (counter clockwise).
First you have to select the objects, either by cklicking at
individual objects or by an selection area. The selected objects
The rotation point is the point you clicked on or in the case of a
selection area a point you are asked for. In the latter case you can
define further rotations of the selected objects by defining further
The number of degrees is changed by clicking on the field with the
degrees. Clicking with the left (right) mouse button adds 5 (30)
degrees, modulo 360 degrees.
- Menue item 'copy'
Objects which have been selected or are within a selection rectangle
can be copied to an other point of the window. The objects which are
selected blink. There are two modes to copy, selected by field 'm'
in the same line of the menue.
Case 'm' not active: Copying is based on a transformation containing
a translation, a rotation and a scaling. This transformation is
defined by two lines, the reference line and the goal line. The
transformation transforms the reference line into the goal
line. After selecting the two lines you can select objects to be
copied after applying the transformation.
Case 'm' active before selecting copy: One or more objects can be
selected either by clicking on them or by using a selection
rectangle. The objects selected are blinking. If a selection
rectangle is defined you are requested to click on a reference point
otherwise the refernce point is the point you clicked on when
selecting the object(s). After this you can copy the selected
objects as often as you like by clicking on a goal point. The
objects are copied in a way that goal point and refernce point
coincide. There is no rotation and no scaling.
- Menue item 'move'
You can move objects from one place to another. Handling is the same
as described for copying, but the original objects are deleted.
- Menue item 'm' in the line of 'copy' and 'move'
Copy or move objects with the mouse. See 'copy' for details.
- Menue item 'complete'
Two lines with one common end-point are selected. This two lines are
complemented by two other lines to yield a parallelogram.
- Menue item 'extend'
You can select a line, a circular or an elliptical arc which is then
extended with a predefined factor. The extension is starting from
the endpoint wich is nearest to the point you clicked on. By
extending an arc a whole circle or ellipse may result.
- Menue item 'fill'
(see also menue item '* ')
You select a drawing object to generate a filled drawing object of
the same kind. The new object is always painted before all other
existing objects, therefore it does not hide already existing
You may fill circles, ellipses, circular arcs, elliptical arcs,
filled circular arcs, filled elliptical arcs, triangles and
Triangles are defined by clicking on two intersecting lines. The
parts you clicked on define two edges. Quadrangles are defined by
clicking on two lines. This defines the four vertices for the filled
quadrangle. There are two possible ways to connect the four points.
To resolve this ambiguity we connect those endpoints of the two
lines which are closest to the point clicked on when selecting the
- Menue item 'trim'
We define simple objects: lines, circles, ellipses, arcs, pieslices.
A simple object T can be intersected other single objects or
extended lines. A part of T between two intersection points or
between an intersection point and an end point of T can be
removed. First click on a point of T in the part to be removed. The
select two simple objects, which define the intersection points. If
only one other simple object is involved, select this same object
twice. Removing the whole object T in this way is not possible.
- Menue item 'up'
You select one or more objects. This objects are moved up to the top
of the hierarchy of drawing objects, this means they are painted
last and may obscure other objects lower in the hierarchy. In
addition the sequence of the selected objects in the hierarchy is
- Menue item 'down'
You select one or more objects. This objects are moved down to the
bottom of the hierarchy of drawing objects, this means they are
painted first and may be obscured by other objects higher in the
hierarchy. The sequence of the selected objects in the hierarchy is
- Menue item 'delete'
The selected object is deleted. If you press one of the keys
BACKSPACE, DELETE oder UNDO all objects deleted since the last
selection of the menue item 'delete' are restored.
- Menue item 'cut'
With the menue items 'cut' and 'paste' you may copy objects from one
LaTeXdraw -window to an other LaTeXdraw -window. Selecting 'cut' defines
this window as the from-window. Only one from-window can exist.
After selecting 'cut' you have to define a reference point.
Afterwards you can select objects by clicking on them or by defining
a selection rectangle. Selected objects blink. If you select one
object more than once, this has no effect. If to-windows are already
defined then the objects selected are copied into the to-windows as
soon as they are selected. Otherwise the objects selected are copied
when a to-window comes into existence. The grouping of objects is
- Menue item 'paste'
Selecting 'paste' defines this window as a to-window. More than one
to-window can be defined. After selecting 'paste' you have to define
a goal point. A to-window is ready to accept selected objects from
the from-window (see 'cut'). The copied objects from the from-window
are translated so that the reference point in the from-window
coincides with the goal point of the to-window.
- Menue item '-l'
Text is aligned left horizontally with the reference point.
- Menue item '-r'
Text is aligned right horizontally with the reference point.
- Menue item '-b'
The bottom of the text is aligned with the reference point.
- Menue item '-t'
The top of the text is aligned with the reference point.
- Menue item '* '
The drawing object selected is filled. No border line is generated.
Circles, ellipses, arcs, rectangles, quadrangles and Bezier curves
may be filled. Regular polygons are not filled, but connecting
lines between vertices and center point are generated.
- Menue item 'C'
If the drawing objects 'circle' or 'ellipse' are selected circular
arcs or elliptical arcs are drawn. They are filled, if in addition
'* ' is active.
- Menue item '||'
The symbol '||' stands for parallel.
If you draw a line and '||' is active you want to draw a
line parallel to line gp. You have to click on the first end point
of the line. Then you click on a point to define roughly the
direction the resulting line should go. Then you select the line gp.
The generated line is as long as line gp and is parallel to gp.
If you draw an ellipse or a elliptical arc you want the main axis
parallel to line gp. Again you have to click on the line gp as
requested in the drawing process.
If you define text, the text can be oriented parallel to a line gp.
Again you have to click on the line gp as requested in the drawing
- Menue item '-|'
The symbol '-|' stands for normal to. A line is defined by its
starting point p and a line s. The end point of the line is the
intersection of line s and its normal through point p.
- Menue item 'mp'
The symbol 'mp' stands for middle point.
If 'mp' is active the point clicked on replaced by a modified point
- Case 1: You clicked on a line then the resulting point is the
middle point of the line.
- Case 2: You clicked on a circle, an ellipse or an arc then
the resulting point is the center point of the object.
- Case 3: You clicked on a filled triangle or rectangle or
quadrangle then the resulting point is the center of gravity of
- Case 4: The point you clicked on is too far from an object
then the resulting point is the point you clicked on.
- Menue item 'b>'
An arrow is at the beginning of a line, an arc or a Bezier curve.
- Menue item 'e>'
An arrow is at the end of a line, an arc or a Bezier curve.
- Menue item '|]'
If this item is activated and there is no arrow at the end points
selected, then solid lines are extended on both sides by half the
- Menue item '=<number>'
This number represents the linewidth. By clicking on this field with
the left (right) mouse button this number is incremented
(decremented) by one modulo 20. The actual linewidth in points for
printing is calculated as 0.57*<number>. It may be changed in
- Menue item ' _ ' and not menue item ' . ' active
Lines are dashed.
- Menue item ' . ' and not menue item '_ ' active
Lines are dotted.
- Menue item ' _ ' and menue item ' . ' active
Lines are dashed-dotted.
- Menue items ' < ^ v > '
Scrolling of the drawing by a fixed amount left, up, right or down.
There is no problem if parts of the drawing are outside of the
window. Scrolling of the window can be done at any time, also
between clicks defining one drawing object. Scrolling can also be
done with the arrow keys of the keyboard.
- Menue item ''
The drawing is saved and work can continue.
- Menue item 'groupmode'
Groupmode is activated, selecting one object may select all objects
of a group. If single objects are to be selected, e.g. for changing
their attributes or for deleting, then 'groupmode' should not be
active. Turning off groupmode does not destroy the group hierarchy
but only deactivates it.
- Menue item 'newgroup'
A new group of objects is generated. All objects or object groups
you select until you click again on 'newgroup' or on an other menue
item are grouped together. The objects selected blink.
- Menue item 'ungroup'
You ungroup a group of objects. First you click on an object, then
all elements of the highest group this object is contained in
blink. If you click on 'OK' then this highest group is ungrouped
into the single objects or the object groups this group consisted
- Menue item 'showgroup'
You click on an object, then all elements of the highest group this
object is contained in blink.
- Menue item 'G' (Grid)
A grid is always displayed. Since snap is defined in a new way it is
rarely necessary to work without a grid.
If you click on 'G' then a square grid with a basic gridwidth is
displayed where the center point, is the center of the drawing area.
Then you may define three additional points or leave the grid
definition by selecting an other menue item now or later at any
point in the progress. In this case the grid defined at the moment
you leave is the grid to be used.
The first point gives the center point of the grid. Width and height
of the mesh stay unchanged.
The second point is the next grid point to the right of the center
point. The grid may not be parallel to the x- and y-axis, but the
mesh is rectangular. Width and height of the mesh are identical.
The third point is the next grid point above the center point. The
third and second point together define a grid, whose width and
height are different and which is not rectangular.
The width and height of the mesh changes also when scaling the
- Menue item 'o'
The drawing is centered around the middle of the drawing area. This
operation can be done at any time.
- Menue item '+'
The drawing is enlarged. This operation can be done at any time.
You can also use key + of the keyboard.
- Menue item '-'
The drawing is scaled down. This operation can be done at any time.
You can also use key - of the keyboard.
- Menue item 'snap'
When clicking on a point and 'snap' is active, then the point
really used is in most cases the snap-in-point. If snap is not
active, then the point used is the point you clicked on.
The snap-in-point is the nearest hot-point of an object or grid, if
this point is within a certain range. Otherwise it is the point you
- reference points of texts
- endpoints of lines, arcs and Bezier-curves
- center points of circles, ellipses and arcs
- vertices of triangles, rectangles and quadrangels
- Menue item 'xy'
If 'xy' is active you define the next point not by clicking with
the mouse button but by giving two floating point numbers separated
by blanks via keyboard input. The coordinates are defined in
gridunits relative to the center point of the grid. Input is
finished with key RETURN.
- Menue item 'deg'
If 'deg' is active the next point to define an end point of an arc
is not defined by clicking with the mouse button, but by keyboard
input of a floating point number. This number gives the angle of the
endpoint in degrees in the mathematical sense.
- Menue item '<colornumber>:<colorname>'
The number and name of the color used for strokes and for filling is
given in this menue field. The background color of this field is
this color. The number is incremented (decremented) by one through
clicking with the left (right) mouse button on this field. You can
also select a color by clicking on the special menue part.
If a color is not available the corresponding field is black. The
internal representation of the colors is with an integer value.
Number 0 is black and number 1 is white. The actual colors used are
defined in the style file latexdraw.sty by their RGB-values.
- Menue item 'chatt'
You can change the attributes of objects by first clicking on the
attribute in the menue and then selecting objects. The process of
changing attributes and selecting objects can be repeated. The
attributes linewidth, colour, type of line, arrows, font and
text-alignment can be changed. Only those attributes are changed
which have been clicked on at least once after selecting 'chatt'!
- Menuefeld 'stdin'
If activated, input from standard-input is expected and waited
for. There are two cases:
First case: A complete Latexdraw-file arrives, including the
headlines with a version number and other parameters as well as the
trailing lines which define the groups. In this case all in
the programm already existing drawing elements are deleted and only the
newly arriving drawing elements are stored. This is equivalent to
loading a new picture. This new picture is diplayed after input of
the last line, then there is a delay of d seconds until a new
interaction is possible (see menue item 'd:').
Second case: Only drawing elements are coming, without header lines
or trailing lines. Already existing drawing elements are retained
and not deleted. A newly arriving drawing element with positiv type
is stored on top of the existing elements, therefore displayed
last. If there is already a identical drawing element, which
differs only in color or lineattributes, these attributes are taken
from the newly arrived element and the latter is discarded
afterwards. If the type of the element is negativ (-t) and there
is an identical element with type t, then both elements are
deleted. A drawing element has the structure as in the
Latexdraw-file and must be contained in one line. The last element
is followed by a line with 17 zeros separated by blanks. If such a
line arrives, the drawing is displayed, then there is a delay of d
seconds until a new interaction is possible (see menue item 'd:').
Input using standard input can consist of an arbitrary mixed
sequence of the obove mentioned two input types. Only after input
of a whole line interactions with the menue of the window is
possible. There are no restrictions in the actions possible, e.g.
it is possible to activate other menue-items and continue standard
The feature is especially useful for on-line animations, therefore
grid points and click marks are not displayed in this mode.
- Menuefeld 'd:<dauer>s'
The value $<$dauer$>$ represents the delay in seconds after input
of drawings using standard input (see stdin). The value is
incremented (decremented) by clicking on this field with the left
(right) mouse button.